22March 2016

I have moved forward in this course, which was mostly based on videos. A good set of videos that I have shared with colleagues and in social media.

Unfortunately practically no discussion took place, which is a less positive aspect of this course.

As there are not many videos in portuguese about e-accessibility, I decided to make a few screencasts organized in 4 short episodes.

14 March 2016

Evolution of HTML  to version HTML 5, which introduced some new semantic elements. The «div» element in previous versions was replaced by:

<header> – <footer> – <nav> – <main> – <section>

This corresponds to a normal structure of a website, with a header for a Title, a navigation bar, a main introduction,  sections (body content) and a footer with links for contacts, copyright, social media links, etc.


ARIA – Accessible Rich Internet Application – extension of HTML – allows JavaScript to communicate

References and resources:

The Accessibility Project http://www.a11yproject.com/

Stack Overflow http://www.stackoverflow.com

WAVE Web Accessibility Tool http://wave.webaim.org

We have web accessibility in mind http://www.webaim.org

13 March 2016

Fixing Web Accessibility Issues (Part 1)

Fixing Web Accessibility Issues (Part 2)

12 March 2016

How to use a Web validator, in this case WAVE from WebAim and how to fix the error

Problems detected surfing a website with JAWS

MajorWeb Browsers: Chrome, Firefox; IE, Safari.


HTML (Markup Language) goes along with CSS language. CSS is more related to visual presentation. Screen readers usually overlook CSS.




11 March 2016

Impacts of captioning


Recursos sobre acessibilidades:

Accessibility in Microsoft Office 2010 http://www.microsoft.com/enable/products/office2010/

Accessibility Features in Office 2013 http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/support/accessibility-features-in-office-2013-HA102852263.aspx

Create Accessible PDFs from Accessible Office Documents http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/create-accessible-pdfs-HA102478227.aspx

Create an Accessible PDF from Microsoft Word 2010 Document (WebAIM)http://webaim.org/techniques/acrobat/converting#word

Creating Accessible Word Documents http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/creating-accessible-word-documents-HA101999993.aspx?CTT=5&origin=HA102478227

Creating Accessible PowerPoint Presentations http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/powerpoint-help/creating-accessible-powerpoint-presentations-HA102013555.aspx

Make Accessible PDF files with Adobe Acrobat XI Prohttp://wwwimages.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/products/acrobat/pdfs/adobe-acrobat-xi-make-accessible-pdf-files-tutorial_ue.pdf

Microsoft Accessibility Website http://www.microsoft.com/enable/

WebAIM Create Accessible Word Documents http://webaim.org/techniques/word/

WebAIM PDF Accessibility http://webaim.org/techniques/acrobat/

WebAIM PowerPoint Accessibility http://webaim.org/techniques/powerpoint/

Using the Accessibility Checker http://office2010.microsoft.com/en-us/starter-help/accessibility-checker-HA010369192.aspx

Audio Description Coalition A Brief History of Audio Description in the U.S.http://www.audiodescriptioncoalition.org/history.html

Audio Description Project, American Council of the Blind. Audio Description on TV.http://www.acb.org/adp/tv.html

Described and Captioned Media Program. DCMP Captioning Key http://captioningkey.org/

Federal Communications Commission. Closed captioning on television. http://www.fcc.gov/guides/closed-captioning

Gannon, J. R. (1981). Deaf heritage: A narrative history of deaf America. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.

National Center on Disability and Access to Education. Captioning YouTube Videos.http://ncdae.org/resources/cheatsheets/youtube.php.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NIH Publication No. 00-4834 Captions for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Viewers. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/Pages/caption.aspx

Oxenford, David. FCC Adopts New Obligations to Caption Online Video Clips of TV Programs. http://www.broadcastlawblog.com/2014/07/articles/fcc-adopts-new-obligations-to-caption-online-video-clips-of-tv-programs/.

Snyder, J. (2014). The visual made verbal: A comprehensive training manual and guide to the history and applications of audio description. Arlington, VA : American Council of the Blind.

Stark, B. (2013). Described and Captioned Media Program: Basic Guidelines for Busy Families and Others Who Shoot Their Own Video. http://www.dcmp.org/ciy/

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

8 March 2016

Android Accessibility

7 March 2016

Speech Recognition (speech input) talking to the computer so that it transform spoken words into written text, voice dictation software.

Differences between Text-to-Speech (TTS – speech output) and Screen Readers


Principles of Universal Design


Assistive Technology definitionAT_definitionn


4 March 2016

This course has excellent videos and excellent tutors and guests

Arthur_Murphy_Lesson_5.1.- https://youtu.be/q7dglj7hlMo

Arthur_Murphy_Lesson_5.2.mp4 – Gestural Interface –


Resources for Module 2 – ICT Accessibility Design

W3C: Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) –http://www.w3.org/WAI/

Section 508 (US GOV) http://www.section508.gov

A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites http://alistapart.com/

Usability.gov http://www.usability.gov/

User-centered design – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_design

Example Personas, Accessibility in User-Centered Design, Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout Designhttp://www.uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas_eg.html

«Remember that people are diverse. Be careful not to assume that all users, including users with disabilities, use the product the same way. People use different interaction techniques, different adaptive strategies, and different assistive technology configurations. People have different experiences, different expectations, and different preferences. This persona is just one example of a user in this user group.»

The Technology Behind the NYTimes.com Redesign http://nyti.ms/1atlyuW

Welcome to The New http://www.nytimes.com/redesign/

Improving Article Accessibility http://nyti.ms/TsaZD3

Book References

Norman, D. (1988). The Psychology of Everyday Things (1 edition.). New York: Basic Books.

Norman, D. (2013). The Design of Everyday Things: Revised and Expanded Edition (Revised Edition edition.). New York, New York: Basic Books.

Krug, S. (2014). Don’t Make Me Think, Revisited: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability (3 edition.). Berkeley, Calif.: New Riders.

Gothelf, J. (2013). Lean UX: Applying Lean Principles to Improve User Experience. (J. Seiden, Ed.) (1 edition.). Beijing ; Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2010). Universal Principles of Design, Revised and Updated: 125 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design (Second Edition, Revised and Updated edition.). Rockport Publishers.

3 March 2016

Market – Buying Accessible

Usually tha market for people with disabilities is seen as a small and unprofitable market, but when looking at global level it means that circa 1.3 billion people have disabilities of varied nature, namely a growing aging population. This report of 2013 shows the potential of a market for consumers with disabilities – Sustainable Value Creation Through Disability

A US website on Buying Accessible – http://buyaccessible.gov/ 

Legislation on Accessibility

The U.S. FCC under Section 255 of the Communications Act require telecommunications equipment manufacturers and service providers to make their products and services accessible to people with disabilities – FCC Telecommunications Act Section 255

ADA/1990/USA to be updated in 2016 – Section 508 (Rehabilitation Act). Legal action is taken place against companies that don’t comply with accessibility regulations.

A review of accessibility legislation in some countries:

Canada – ODA legislation – https://www.ontario.ca/page/accessibility-laws. Canada is giving financial support to small companies to provide accessibility, both physical and digital.

Germany – BITV Regulation

Italy – STANCA Act – http://www.g3ict.org/resource_center/country_profiles/G3ict_White_Paper_-_Accessibility_Policy_Making/Italy

European Committee for Standardization – https://www.cen.eu/Pages/default.aspx 


AMAC Accessibility Solutions and Research Center http://www.amacusg.org

Accessibility Support ICTAccessibilityTechSupport@amac.gatech.edu

The Center for 21st Century Universities (C21U) http://c21u.gatech.edu

Georgia Tech Professional Education https://pe.gatech.edu/

Resource Website: Coursera Verified Certificate

Coursera’s help page for Learners with Disabilities

United Nations Disabilities Definition http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/faqs.htm

Social Model of Disabilities https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_model_of_disability

United Nations Enable http://www.un.org/disabilities/index.asp

Job Access with Speech (JAWS) http://www.freedomscientific.com/Products/Blindness/JAWS

Apple iPhone VocieOver http://www.apple.com/accessibility/ios/#vision

Lesson 3: ICT Foundations, Section 1

Information Communications Technology (ICT)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_communications_technology

The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?navid=15&pid=150

Accessibility http://mandate376.standards.eu/accessible-procurement/what-ict-accessibility

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilitieshttp://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml

Once/ILUNION http://www.ilunion.com/en

The Global Initiative for Inclusive (G3ict) http://g3ict.com/

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) http://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx

e-Accessibility Policy Toolkit for Persons with Disabilities http://www.e-accessibilitytoolkit.org/

M-Enabling Summit http://www.m-enabling.com/

International Association of Accessibility Professionals (IAAP): http://www.accessibilityassociation.org/

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) http://www.ada.gov/index.html

The Rehabilitation Act Amendments (Section 508) http://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications-and-it/about-the-section-508-standards/background/section-508-the-law

The Rehabilitation Act Amendments (Section 503) http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-rehab.htm

Federal Communications Commission, Section 255 http: //www.fcc.gov/guides/telecommunications-access-people-disabilities

Telecommunications Act Section 255 Guidelines http://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications-and-it/about-the-telecommunications-act-guidelines

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

Europeans Procurement Toolkit http: //mandate376.standards.eu/

The United States Access Board http://www.access-board.gov/

Fifth Quadrant Analytics http: //returnondisability.com/

Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) http://www.dol.gov/odep/

The European Union has an Accessible ICT Procurement Toolkit http://mandate376.standards.eu/

Vídeos of course – ICT Without Sight – https://youtu.be/W-vq7jay9Eg 

1 March 2016

Module I – ICT Accessibility

Definition of person with disability


UN statistics show increasing number of disabilities owing to growth of population and aging population.

Categories of disabilities


UN Enable website – https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/

Definition of ICT


Definition Accessibility


29 Feb 2016

MOOC promoted by the  Georgia Institute of Technology, starting 29 February 2016, edX platform – https://courses.edx.org/courses/course-v1:GTx+ICT100x+1T2016/info 


  • Module 1: ICT Accessibility
  • Module 2: ICT Accessibility Design
  • Module 3: Assistive Technology
  • Module 4: Accessible Documents and Multimedia
  • Module 5: Web Accessibility Evaluation and Design
  • Module 6: ICT Accessibility Operations